The Amuzgos are an indigenous people of Mexico. The origin of the Amuzgos is not known, but their Amuzgo language is similar to the Mixtec language and their territory overlaps that of the Mixtec region. In the past, they dominated a larger area, but Mixtec domination, followed by the Spanish
Que es el tequio yahoo dating the arrival of Afro-Mexicans pushed them into the more inaccessible mountain regions and away from the coast.
The Amuzgos maintain much of their language and dress and are known for their textiles handwoven on backstrap looms with two-dimensional designs which can be complicated.
The Amuzgo area is very poor with an economy mostly dependent on subsistence agriculture and handcraft production.
The Aztecs referred to them as Amoxco, the origin of the word Amuzgo. One interpretation has it meaning "place of books" probably referring to an administrative center which was then generalized to the people.
The name of for the Amuzgo people varies by community. The municipal seat of Tlacoachistlahuaca is dominated by Amuzgos and mestizos with Mixtecs in the rural areas outside it.
The terrain is rugged with many ravines and small valleys. Vegetation is dominated by thickets of kermes oakswith other species such as royal and coconut palms, with mixed forests in the higher elevations and some low grown rainforest closer to the coast.
Many trees lose Que es el tequio yahoo dating leaves during the dry season. Wildlife consists of mammals, reptiles and a great variety of birds. Species include badgersarmadillosraccoonsocelotscoyotesanteatersporcupinesrabbits, parrots, owls and buzzards. The Amuzgos live in their region along with other ethnic groups such as the Mixtecs, TlapanecsNahuas, TriquisChatinosmestizos and Afro-Mexicans.
Amuzgo relations with these groups are fluid and complex. With some they are strained, such as the Mixtec because of a history of domination and with the Que es el tequio yahoo dating who they associate with Spanish domination, accusing them of being executioners of indigenous in the past and forcing them to the mountains. Despite the past domination, the Amuzgo in Guerrero are relatively dominant to the Mixtecs which are present in Tlacoachistlahuca.
However, they are dominated by the far more numerous mestizos. The origins of the Amuzgos are unknown. If this is the case, the Amuzgos passed through the Mexican Plateau area and Puebla before heading into Oaxaca and Guerrero. Since their language is similar to others in the Oaxaca area, it is likely that they migrated to their current location on the northern edge of the Mixtec region to escape inter-ethnic violence.
Xochistlahuaca was the capital of an Amuzgo dominion. Aroundthe Amuzgos were subjugated by the Mixtecs. The Amuzgos paid tribute to the Mixtecs for about years in cotton, cloth, feathers, hides, gold, corn, beans and chili peppers. The area was part of a Mixtec province called Ayacastla, which the Aztecs subjuged inbut they never exercised direct or complete control over the Amuzgos. The Spanish under Pedro de Alvarado subjugated the area in During the early colonial period, war, disease and overwork decimated most of the indigenous population with the Amuzgos being one of only four ethnicities to survive.
In Xochistlahuaca alone, the indigenous population fell from about 20, in to only in Spanish domination pushed them further into the mountains of the Sierra Madre del Sura process which had begun under Mixtec domination. Evangelization did reach them and inXochistlahuaca was named an administrative and religious center, much as it was in the pre-Hispanic period.
During the colonial period, the Amuzgo area was governed by the city of Oaxaca then called Antequera which in turn was a sub province of Puebla. In the 17th century, it was part of the Chilapa diocese as part of the Puebla bishopric. The loss of indigenous labor in Mexico prompted the Spanish to bring over African slaves, most of which arrived to Veracruz. Many escaped slaves and their descendents made their way to Amuzgo territory in the Costa Chica region, which had the effect of pushing the remaining Amuzgo away from the coast.
The town of Czoyoapan was supposedly founded by Amuzgos who moved here from an area near San Nicolas, Guerrero, which became dominated by Afro-Mexicans. It is not known when it was founded by it appears in records as early as During the colonial period untilIgualapa was the capital of Ayacastla, which was then moved to Ometepec.
In the 19th century, most Amuzgo land wound up in the hands of the family of Guillermo Hacho, to which the indigenous had to pay rent. Inthe Amuzgo began to fight to take back control resulting in the establishment of the Xochistlahuaca ejido in with 6, hectares.
This ejido became the municipality of Xochistlahuaca in
Que es el tequio yahoo dating Inthe ejido was granted an additional 1, hectares of land for the growing population.
While Amuzgo communities have been traditionally isolated from the outside world, the construction of highways in the region has connected them. From the latter 20th century to the present, there has been migration of Amuzgos out of the territory to find work in other areas of Mexico and in the United States.
This has even included permanent migration down into the Cuajinicuilapa area near the coast where Amuzgos were pushed out of in the pre-Hispanic and colonial periods. The Amuzgo language has various names in the language proper based on the dialect and community. These varieties are very similar, but there is a significant difference between western varieties Northern and Southern and eastern varieties Upper Eastern and Lower Easternas revealed by recorded text testing done in the s.
They are also taught to read and write in the Amuzgo language. In areas where the primary schools do not have primary schools with Amuzgo-speaking teachers, loss of Amuzgo among children and problems with academic development do occur.
Amuzgo family life is based on both the nuclear and extended family, which is mostly patriarchal. Weddings are elaborate affaires with food, alcohol and music. The family that proposes sets the wedding date and the pair meet at that
Que es el tequio yahoo dating, as the families work to cement economic and social ties. The groom is expected to provide various gifts such as corn, beans, chili peppers, firewood, chocolate and money to make the bride's huipil.
If the bride is a virgin the consummation of the wedding is celebrated with fireworks. If not, there is some tension.