About million people across the world suffer from thyroid gland dysfunction. Environmental factors play an important role in causation of autoimmune thyroid diseases in susceptible individuals. In order to reduce the risk, we need to understand the association of environmental agents with thyroid dysfunction. These factors are especially relevant for those at increased risk due to positive family history.
The ideal study to see the impact of a thyroid toxicant consists of directly measuring the degree of exposure to toxicant in an individual with his thyroid status. Knowledge of various factors influencing thyroid dysfunction can help in interpreting the results of such studies in a better way. This article is an attempt to highlight various possible toxicants affecting thyroid function so that adequate measures can be undertaken to control excessive exposure in future to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders.
Thyroid gland produces three important metabolic hormones, thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine, and calcitonin [ 1 ]. Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH produced by the anterior pituitary gland controls the production of these hormones. Iodine, derived mainly from sea-foods or consumed in the form of iodized salt, is utilized for producing T 3 and T 4 hormones [ 2 ]. Thyroid Disorders are the commonest amongst the various glandular disorders of the endocrine system [ 3 ].
According to a recently released report, about million people in the world are suffering from this endocrine problem, out of which 42 million are Indians [ 45 ]. The prevalence of Kale thyroid function disorders is not distinctive in Kale thyroid function age groups, sex as well as different areas [ 6 ]. The untreated thyroid disease can produce serious consequences especially cardiovascular diseases.
So, improved public awareness about thyroid disorders and the responsible factors for it is important to cope with Kale thyroid function illness [ 8 ]. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in 8 major cities of India is reported to be Another study however showed the prevalence of hypothyroidism to be 3.
Urinary iodine status in the same population showed it to Kale thyroid function iodine sufficient. Anti-TPO antibodies reported in more than a third of community detected hyperthyroid cases [ 10 ]. In the past, endemic goiter has been linked to iodine deficiency by several prominent researchers [ 11 — 13 ] but despite iodization, its prevalence has not reduced, hence thyroid auto-immunity and other goitrogens seem "Kale thyroid function" play important role in causation of goiter [ 14 ].
Thus, the knowledge of environmental factors that trigger autoimmune thyroid diseasemay help in reducing the risk [ 20 ]. Some of the factors proposed from various human and animal studies are: The goitrogenic potential of a plant or food depends upon the amount of active goitrogen present in it.
Various procedures like soaking, washing, boiling and cooking can help in reducing the goitrogenic potency of these foods. These, along with the intake of iodide supplements are generally practiced in areas where goitrogenic foods are routinely consumed. How far these measures are effective in reducing anti-thyroidal activity is still unclear. Patients suffering from hypothyroidism can avoid consumption of raw cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard greens, kale, and turnip.
In addition, daily diet should include thyroid boosting foods like those rich in iodine, amino acid tyrosine, minerals like selenium, zinc, copper, iron, various vitamins including, B2, B3, B6, C and E.
The benefits of iodine repletion outweigh the risk of thyroid auto-immunity, hence global iodine sufficiency should be ensured. The amount of fat consumed and its composition definitely influences thyroid activity as from the study quoted above but more studies are required to validate the results.
It is difficult to prove the role of environmental chemicals in increasing susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease although they have been blamed for its causation since long. Further studies on environmental toxicants can provide an indepth view of the impact of these agents. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. J Clin Diagn Res.