This beer garden in the heart of Silicon Valley has been standing on the same spot since But for more than years, it has done one thing and done it well: These days it is called the Alpine Inn Beer Garden, and the clientele remains as motley as ever. On the patio out back, there are cyclists in spandex and bikers in leather.
There is a wild-haired man who might be a professor or a lunatic or a CEO, scribbling into a notebook. In the parking lot is a Harley, a Maserati, and a horse. But 40 years ago this August, a small team of scientists set up a computer terminal at one of its picnic tables and conducted an extraordinary experiment. Over plastic cups of beer, they proved that a strange idea called the internet could work. You can hold it in your hand and examine it from every angle.
The internet is the opposite.
The internet is like the holy ghost: This feature of the internet makes it seem extremely complex. Surely something so ubiquitous yet invisible must require deep technical sophistication to understand. The internet is fundamentally simple. And that simplicity is the key to its success. The people who invented the internet came from all over the world. As a military venture, Arpa had a specifically military motivation for creating the internet: InArpa had built a computer network called Arpanetwhich linked mainframes at universities, government agencies, and defense contractors around the country.
Arpanet grew fast, and included nearly 60 nodes by the mids. But Arpanet had a problem: That might work for researchers, who could sit at a terminal in Cambridge or Menlo Park —
Invention of the internet military dating it did little for soldiers deployed deep in enemy territory.
For Arpanet to be useful to forces in the field, it had to be accessible anywhere in the world. Picture a jeep in the jungles of Zaire, or a B miles above North Vietnam. Then imagine these as nodes in a wireless network linked to another network of powerful computers thousands of miles away. This is the dream of a networked military using computing power to defeat the Soviet Union and its allies.
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This is the dream that produced the internet. Making this dream a reality required doing two things. The first was building a wireless network that could relay packets of data among the widely dispersed cogs of the US military machine by radio or satellite.
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The second was connecting those wireless "Invention of the internet military dating" to the wired network of Arpanet, so that multimillion-dollar mainframes could serve soldiers in combat. Internetworking is the problem the internet was invented to solve. It presented enormous challenges. Getting computers to talk to one another — networking — had been hard enough. But getting
Invention of the internet military dating to talk to one another — internetworking — posed a whole new set of difficulties, because the networks spoke alien and incompatible dialects.
Trying to move data from one to another was like writing a letter in Mandarin to someone who only knows Hungarian and hoping to be understood. In response, the architects of the internet developed a kind of digital Esperanto: These rules had to strike a very delicate balance.
On the one hand, they needed to be strict enough to ensure the reliable transmission of data. On the other, they needed to be loose enough to accommodate all of the different ways that data might be transmitted. The military would keep innovating. They would keep building new networks and new technologies. The protocol had to keep pace: This feature would make the system not only future-proof, but potentially infinite. Eventually, these rules became the lingua franca of the internet.
But first, they needed to be implemented and tweaked and tested — over and over and over again. There was nothing inevitable about the internet getting built. It seemed like a ludicrous idea to many, even among those who were building it. The scale, the ambition — the internet was a skyscraper and nobody had ever seen anything more than a few stories tall.
Even with a firehose of cold war military cash behind it, the internet looked like a long shot. A pair of cables ran from the terminal to the parking lot, disappearing into a big grey van. Inside the van were machines that transformed the words being typed
Invention of the internet military dating the terminal into packets of data. In 40 years, the internet...
These signals radiated through the air to a repeater on a nearby mountain top, where they were amplified and rebroadcast. With this extra boost, they could make it all the way to Menlo Park, where an antenna at an office building received them.
It was here that the real magic began. Inside the office building, the incoming packets passed seamlessly from one network to another: To make this jump, the packets had to undergo a subtle metamorphosis. They had to change their form without changing their content. This miraculous flexibility is a feature of the natural universe — which is lucky, because life depends on it. The flexibility that the internet depends on, by contrast, had to be engineered.
And on that
Invention of the internet military dating in August, it enabled packets that had only existed as radio signals in a wireless network to become electrical signals in the wired network of Arpanet. Remarkably, this transformation preserved the data perfectly. The packets remained completely intact. Powering this internetwork odyssey was the new protocol cooked up by Kahn and Cerf. Two networks had become one. Tall and soft-spoken, he is relentlessly modest; seldom has someone had a better excuse for bragging and less of a desire to indulge in it. Widening the network
We are sitting in the living room of his Palo Alto home, four miles from Google, nine from Facebook, and at no point does he even partly take credit for creating the technology that made these extravagantly profitable corporations possible.
The internet was a group effort, Nielson insists.
SRI was only one of many organizations working on it. There was always more to accomplish: Nielson himself had forgotten about it until a reporter reminded him 20 years later. ByAmericans were having cybersex in AOL chatrooms and building hideous, seizure-inducing homepages on GeoCities.
Invention of the internet military dating internet had outgrown its military roots and gone mainstream, and people were becoming curious about its origins.
So Nielson dug out a few old reports from his files, and started reflecting on how the internet began. Forty years ago, the internet teleported thousands of words from the Bay Area to Boston over channels as dissimilar as radio waves and copper telephone lines.
Today it bridges far greater distances, over an even wider variety of media.
The history of the Internet...
It ferries data among billions of devices, conveying our tweets and Tinder swipes across multiple networks in milliseconds. The most important thing to understand about the origins of the internet, Nielson says, is that it came out of the military.
While Arpa had wide latitude, it still had to choose its projects with an eye toward developing technologies that might someday be useful for winning wars.
Invention of the internet military dating The engineers who built the internet understood that, and tailored it accordingly. It maintains nearly bases in more than 70 countries around the world. It has hundreds of ships, thousands of warplanes, and tens of thousands of armored vehicles. The reason the internet can work across any device, network, and medium — the reason a smartphone in Sao Paulo can stream a song from a server in Singapore — is because it needed to be as ubiquitous as the American security apparatus that financed its construction.
The internet would end up being useful to the US military, if not quite in the ways its architects intended. By binding different networks together so seamlessly, they made the internet feel like a single space.
Strictly speaking, this is an illusion. The internet is composed of many, many networks: But the internet is a master weaver: Forty years ago, this universe first flickered into existence in the foothills outside of Palo Alto, and has been expanding ever since. Order by newest oldest recommendations.
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Loading comments… Trouble loading? Much material currently exists about the Internet, covering history, technology, In late Roberts went to DARPA to develop the computer network concept. Find out all about the birth of the thing we call the internet.
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