With the exception of South Africa and Cape Verdelesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender LGBT rights in Africa are very limited in comparison to many other areas of the world. Homosexuality is found throughout the African continent. Sincesome developed countries have been considering or implementing laws that limit or prohibit general budget support to countries that restrict the rights of LGBT people. Nevertheless, most scholarship and research demonstrates that homosexuality has long been a part of various African cultures.
In Sudansouthern SomaliaSomaliland, Mauritania and northern Nigeriahomosexuality is punishable by death. In addition to criminalizing homosexuality, Nigeria has enacted legislation that would make it illegal for heterosexual family members, allies friends of LGBT people to be supportive. According to Nigerian law, a heterosexual ally "who administers, witnesses, abets or aids" any form of gender non-conforming and homosexual activity could receive a year jail sentence.
However, violence and social discrimination against South African LGBT is still widespread, fueled by a African anti homosexual movement of religious and political figures. The Spanish, British and French territories also permit same-sex marriages.
Gay and lesbian travellers to Africa should use discretion. Public displays of affection should generally be avoided, advice which applies to both homosexual and heterosexual couples. It remains unclear, what exact view the ancient Egyptians fostered about homosexuality. Any document and literature that actually contains sexual orientated stories, never named the nature of the African anti homosexual movement deeds, but instead uses stilted and flowery paraphrases.
Ancient Egyptian documents never clearly say that same-sex relationships were seen as reprehensible or despicable. No ancient Egyptian document mentions that homosexual acts were set under penalty. Thus, a straight evaluation remains problematic. The best known case of possible homosexuality in ancient Egypt is that of the two high officials Nyankh-Khnum and Khnum-hotep. Both men lived and served under pharaoh Niuserre during the 5th Dynasty c. In this mastaba, several paintings depict both men embracing each other and touching their faces nose-on-nose.
These depictions leave plenty of room for speculation, because in ancient Egypt the nose-on-nose touching normally represented a kiss. Egyptologists and historians disagree about how to interpret the paintings of Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep. Some scholars believe that the paintings reflect an example of homosexuality between two married men and prove that the ancient Egyptians accepted same-sex relationships. No matter what interpretation is correct, the paintings show at the very least that Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep must have been very close to each other in life as in death.
African anti homosexual movement
The Roman Emperor Constantine in the 4th century AD is said to have exterminated a large number of "effeminate priests" based in Alexandria. Evidence of homosexuality has also been found in year-old rock paintings in southern Africa depicting men having sex with other men. North Africa contained some of the most visible and well-documented traditions of homosexuality in the world - particularly during the period of Mamluk rule. Arabic poetry emerging from cosmopolitan and literate societies frequently described the pleasures of pederastic relationships.
There are accounts of Christian boys being sent from Europe to become sex workers in Egypt. In Cairo, cross-dressing men called " khawal " would entertain audiences with song and dance potentially of pre-Islamic origin. The Siwa Oasis in Egypt was described by several early twentieth century travellers as a place where same-sex sexual relationships were quite common.
A group of warriors in this area were known for paying reverse dowries to younger men; a practice that was outlawed in the s. Siegfried Frederick Nadel wrote about the Nuba tribes in Sudan the late African anti homosexual movement. Transvestitic homosexuality also African anti homosexual movement amongst the MoruNyima, and Tira peopleand reported marriages of Korongo londo and Mesakin tubele for the bride price of one goat.
In the Korongo and Mesakin tribes, Nadel reported a common reluctance among men to abandon the pleasure of all-male camp life for the fetters of permanent settlement. Gender-nonconforming homosexuality not tied to possession cults has been reported in a number of East African societies. In pre-colonial East Africa there have been examples of male priests in traditional religions dressing as women.
Needham has described "African anti homosexual movement" a religious leadership role called "mugawe" among the Meru people and Kikuyu people of Kenya which included wearing women's clothes and hairstyle.